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The Ultimate Guide to Good Figure Drawing Reference

December 30th, 2012 Leave a comment Go to comments

Yes it is and it is long overdue. I’ve been asked countless times by students, friends and artists in training about getting good reference for figure drawing and head drawing studies. With the unfortunate lack of a centralized and well organized image gallery, it’s about damn time this issue is settled once and for all.

I’ve posted some of my personal reference collection here in one place, also known as The Official Freshdesigner Good Reference Gallery (GRG). There’s a ton of great reference I’ve personally gathered and hand-picked from various sources.

Good figure drawing reference gallery: Freshdesigner.com/figure-drawing-reference

In the section ‘Where To Find Good Reference‘, I’ve listed the best photographers, websites and books that I know of. These sources produce ideal reference and stock photos for artists. The GRG and the list should be more than enough to keep a hungry and motivated artist busy for a while :) .

If you want learn how to find your own good reference, read on…

 

What exactly is “good” reference?

There is a difference between good and bad reference. When I say “good” reference, I really mean “useful”. The number one quality of a useful reference image is the light. The light should be simple with a single, dominant light source being the preferred scenario. This type of lighting (which is also ideal for life drawing models in studio) is what produces the clearest light and shadow patterns and a clear distinction, or border, between light and shadow. It’s this clarity that is vital when studying figure drawing, head drawing & painting. This is especially important for beginners, young artists and artists in training.

An example of great figure drawing reference

This image is a perfect example of good reference. It has all the hallmarks: single, dominant light source (1); clear light and shadow shapes (2); and a clear and distinct border between light and shadow (3). Original photo by G_S_H.

 

Why is good reference important?

Good reference is important for a many reasons. As an artist and educator, I value good reference simply because figure drawing is hard. Yes, figure drawing is hard, and since it is hard, it’s best to choose reference and lighting scenarios that can help simplify the drawing process and smooth out the learning curve. Why fight and struggle and swim upstream? Get good reference and lighting which will help you get the skills.

Speaking of skills, one of the most important skills to learn in figure drawing is the ability to accurately observe light and shadow patterns.  If the light is flat or ambient, there won’t be any shadow shapes to observe. Working with poor reference or poor lighting scenarios will lead to frustration, slowed growth and ineffective use of practice time.

Another critical skill is learning how to observe and control edges. Edges are what artists use to create the illusion of form. Edge is how our minds make the distinction between rounded forms, square forms and everything in between.  The mind’s eye sees form most at the intersection of light and shadow. Because the mind works this way, having an ideal light scenario is an absolute must for learning and mastering edge.

Single source lighting produces a full range of edges on the model. Soft halftone transitions, firm core shadows AND hard cast shadows. It’s these hard edges on shadows that 99% of photographers want to avoid. But it’s these hard edges that allow artists to design shadow patterns. An experienced draftsman can also use hard edge shadows to create powerful contrasts and heighten the sense of drama and mood.

If you’re familiar with West Coast Atelier Style, Reilly Method, or Classical/Academic drawing, you are already aware of the value of useful lighting and excellent reference images. You are a part of this minority of draftsmen that truly know and appreciate good lighting and will insist on proper lighting at all times.  If you’re reading this and have become exposed to my work or this unique style of drawing for the first time, then I want to personally welcome you the light side. To paraphrase Morpheus from the Matrix movie, “Welcome to the real world Neo” :) .

 

What to avoid (aka “bad” figure drawing reference)

If you do a google search for “figure drawing reference” you will get millions of results. Unfortunately, 99% of them will be unusable. Unusable for the purpose of effectively studying the core principles of figure or head drawing.  My students, colleagues and Reilly Method practitioners know how to practice effectively and they also know what to look for in reference images and what to avoid.

Let’s look at some examples of what not to use as reference.

What to avoid #1: Flat, ambient light.

Example of bad figured drawing reference - flat, ambient light

This is probably the #1 problem with most reference images. The light is flat, meaning there are little to no shadows, which means no form and a even wash of a single, uniform tone.

The reason most photographs are flat is because hard shadows are not very flattering. Because defined shadows are not flattening, most photographers will do everything in their power to soften or eliminate them. Obviously, this lighting is fine for most situations, but it was clearly not intended for figurative artists, and thus should be avoided.

Another reason why so many figure models and reference photos are lit so poorly is because of a lack of understanding. Most people just aren’t aware of the value of proper lighting, and are quite frankly ignorant or just don’t care. This is all too common in live figure drawing sessions or uninstructed workshops.  I’ve experienced this personally many times in the recent past, and it was extremely irritating. It’s probably this irritation that spurred me to set up my own figure drawing groups and to write this post.

What to avoid #2: Multiple light sources

An example of reference to avoid - multiple light sources

To soften shadows, photographers will often use 2, 3 or more lights on a subject. This will either wash out (brighten) the shadows, or create unecessary and overly complex shadow patterns. Either one will kill your practice time and send you to a world of pain and frustration.  Look at the image above for example. Can you tell where the light ends and shadow begins? I sure can’t. Good luck trying to design that shadow pattern.

It’s hard enough to draw when there is only 1 light source, producing only 1 shadow pattern. That in itself is hard enough. When you add 2, 3 or more shadow patterns that are unnecessary and don’t add any value to an image you’re just swimming upstream and making life more difficult.

Rim lighting, or ‘kicker’ light, creates cool visual effects and can be quite useful at times because it can often separate the subject from the background. If the rim lighting is well done and expertly placed, meaning the artist understands the value of having shadows, but may want extra ‘kick’ of visual appeal, then I say it’s fair game. Unfortunately rim lighting is easy to abuse and is often done in poor taste, so I would generally avoid these images as well.

What to avoid #3: Flat, dominant shadow

An example of reference to avoid - flat, dominant shadows

The light has been softened here. The pose doesn’t help much either. It basically creates a flat,dark toned image with no form.

There are several common lighting schemes that produce large patches of shadows that tend to be uniform in value and tone.  These lighting schemes can work great in pictures but are useless in drawing and painting studies.

One example is backlighting. Just like when you take a picture of a friend outdoors and the sun is behind him or her, they will be completely in shadow. This is the same problem as Problem #1, ambient light, but in reverse. The result is the same: a flat image with no form.

An example of reference to avoid - backlighting

To soften shadows, photographers will use either  a soft filter on a light or use a less intense light. This soft look also occurs if the light is further away from the subject.  This light will still produce shadows, but there will definitely be no clear border between light and shadow.  Edges will be extremely soft and subtle. Subtleties like that take expert skill and years of practice, which is why it is a logistical nightmare for a new student and should be avoided.

What to avoid #4: Anything 3D, CG or computer modeled

an example of reference to avoid - anything 3D computer modeled

Drawing from a 3d model? Are you serious? I should probably expand on this point, but it’s not worth it. Just don’t do it. I get irritated when I hear people suggesting using 3D models as “reference” for drawing or study. No. Just say No. This is a trend that was to be expected but should be avoided.

 

What do I look for in reference images?

My students, colleagues and anyone that follows my work knows that I insist on the ideal lighting scenario in my reference and studio shots. Especially when working with students.

The first and most important thing I look for is the clear and distinct shadow pattern. For example:

An example of great figure drawing referencet

Notice the beautiful shadow pattern created by the single dominant light source in the upper right. This is what I would call excellent reference.  Even in full color, the shapes and values read extremely well.

The second thing I look for is a simple value structure. Value structure refers to how many values can be observed and how are they arranged.  A good, basic value structure that anyone can understand is the simple three value structure of dark, mid-tone and light.  That’s it. Three values at the most, with two being ideal. I’ll get into understanding values in another post, but let’s see an example of good value structure.

An example of figure drawing reference with good value structure

See how there is a clear light side (1), clear shadow side (2) and an obvious highlight (3). In this example, if I were to sketch from this image, the shadow will be dark, the flesh in light will be mid-tone and the highlights will be the light value. Simple, simple, simple. This simple value structure is not only easy to understand, but it also keeps your drawings clean, organized and can create a lot of visual impact.

That’s it. Simple, clean and specific.  It’s  not too much to ask for. Look for these conditions when browsing for reference, and especially at a live figure model session.

Now that you know what to look for, let’s go find some photographers, books and websites that do it right.

 

Where can I find good reference?

I’ve been collecting reference for many years now. I’ve spent hundreds of hours trolling  through flickr, instagram, google images, getty images, you name it. This list below is the short list of photographers and websites I recommend. These artists consistently generate useful reference images.

1. Sudoksa (Flickr)

Sudoksa is probably my favorite photographer on Flickr. He takes very compelling portraits and various subjects and his lighting is excellent. His best work is his street photography of random strangers in Korea. Go to his ‘My Faves‘ Set  for a quick overview of his work.

2. Mjranum (DeviantArt)

I just discovered Mjranum’s work on Deviant Art, and I am blown away. Not only does he have hundreds of great images with good lighting, but he is very generous with the use of his work.

3. Danny St (Flickr)

Danny St is one of my favorite portrait photographers. Like Sudoksa, Danny takes compelling, candid ‘street’ photos with Singapore being his location of choice.  Look to his Urban Portraits set and 5 Sec Faces for a wide variety of faces in beautiful lighting.

4. Characterdesigns.com

Characterdesigns.com is a website created by Concept Artist Hong Ly. Hong has hundreds of reference photos in a wide variety of settings, costumes and lighting schemes. Not all of his ‘Photosets’ have ideal lighting but the variety and his generosity definitely deserve some props. Look to  Photoset 002, 004 and 016 as good starting points.

 5. Posespace.com

Posespace.com is a website designed for figurative artists. They offer hundreds of beautiful, high res stock images of figure models.  Each pose is even shot in full 360 degree rotation so you can see virtually every angle of any pose.

There is a fee to download the full resolution, 360 degree image sets, but the price is reasonable and the quality is very good. Posespace is by far the best web site I have seen for high quality and useful figure model stock photos.

6. G_S_H (Flickr)

G_S_H is an excellent studio photographer that focuses on male figure and portrait shots. His lighting is EXCELLENT. Probably the best I’ve seen. Even in color, the values read really well. His photos are used in the ‘good reference examples’ above. As a note, his images can be homo-erotic in nature so tread with caution if you’re sensitive to that sort of thing.

7. cleanshvr (DeviantArt)

I recently discovered cleanshvr on DeviantArt. The gallery dedicated to one male model with a sprinkling of couples shots with various females. Not all of the photos are lit well, and there are some erotic tones in his images so you may want to tread with caution.

If you’re feeling too lazy to search, or just want to get to some drawing, I’ve posted some of my personal stash (gathered from these and other sources) in the Good Reference Gallery.

The BEST figure drawing reference book of all time

There are many books out that feature figure model images. They are supposedly for artists, but unfortunately the images are not very useful and suffer from many of the problems mentioned above.

There is however one excellent book that is head and shoulders above the rest. It is so good in fact, and so superior to anything I have ever seen, that I would not even bother with any other book.

That book is Pose File 7.

Posefile 7 book cover - the best figure drawing reference book

My personal copy of Pose File 7. It’s gotten a lot of use and mileage in the last 12 years or so.

Pose File is a series of Japanese photo reference books. All the books in the series are excellent. No. 7 is special though. No. 7 is the light and shadow theme, and  No. 7 gets it right.

Posefile 7 interior pages - the best figure drawing reference book

Interior shot from my personal copy of Pose File 7.

Pose File 7 is full of gorgeous, well lit images. Almost every page, with a few exceptions, is ideal for figure drawing practice.

Unfortunately, Pose File is out of print, but is still available on Amazon. You will pay a premium for this used little gem, but trust me it’s worth every penny. I’ve had my copy for over 10 years now and still refer to it. It’s been an especially great tool for teaching and creating notes and hand outs.

If you like the book but can’t get a copy, you can also sign up for the  free newsletter and you’ll get access to my private reference folder that has beautiful high res scans of Pose File 7.  I only share this book with students and newsletter subscribers.

 
Cool I get it. Now what?

Now that you know what to look for and have a pretty good list of resources to start with, you can start your own library of useful reference images.  Of course, I’ve got you covered too with The Official Freshdesigner Good Reference Gallery (GRG). Go there and get your drawing on.

If you like this post or like the GRG, you can always join the hungry and motivated artists that ‘get it’ by signing up for the FreshTips Newsletter. You’ll get the latest updates and more great content, and by the way, subscribers also get exclusive access to my private reference library.

Private figure drawing reference library by Chris Legaspi

There are hundreds of excellent figure and head reference images all hand picked by me. No fluff and no time wasted. I’ve also included high-res scans of Pose File 7 and premium images purchased from Posespace.com.

The newsletter is free. Enter your email below and click the blue button to join.


 

If you like this post or have any thoughts about good figure drawing reference, leave a comment below. If you have done any figure or head studies from the reference images in the GRG, drop me a line. I’d love to see your drawings, paintings and sketches.

 

Like This Post? Share:
  1. December 31st, 2012 at 04:59 | #1

    Thank you so much for this excellent article, Chris! VERY helpful!!!

  2. December 31st, 2012 at 05:12 | #2

    Many, many thanks for putting this together. You are very generous!

  3. Chris
    December 31st, 2012 at 21:20 | #3

    Thanks! Post your drawings or studies some time. I’d love to see what you do with the reference.

  4. January 1st, 2013 at 22:31 | #4
  5. Chris
    January 2nd, 2013 at 21:52 | #5

    You’re welcome Marie. Can’t to see your new drawings and paintings.

  6. January 3rd, 2013 at 10:38 | #6

    Perhaps you could recommend our site: http://www.onairvideo.com

    We feature the Croquis Cafe which is a weekly online drawing studio of timed models.

    Thanks,
    Larry Withers

  7. dude
    January 3rd, 2013 at 14:44 | #7

    99% of Photographers are always (unknowingly) going to be in conflict with other artists on this matter. It sucks, but that’s the way it is. Thanks for the resources!

  8. January 3rd, 2013 at 17:08 | #8

    Great reference. And thanks for all your wonderful posts.

  9. Chris
    January 3rd, 2013 at 21:39 | #9

    Thanks Joy!

  10. Chris
    January 3rd, 2013 at 21:41 | #10

    @dude They shoot for different purposes. It’s all good. Glad you liked it.

  11. Chris
    January 3rd, 2013 at 21:45 | #11

    @Larry Withers Wow. Those are nice. Let me take some time to look over your images.

  12. Chris
    January 3rd, 2013 at 21:49 | #12

    @Alex Bodnar Are you plugging the book or your affiliate link? ;P yeah that’s the same company as posespace.com. Good stuff.

  13. January 5th, 2013 at 10:51 | #13

    Congrats on the site Chris – you are kicking butt, … as usual :)

  14. Shane Walsh
    January 5th, 2013 at 16:45 | #14

    Hello Chris, Just wondering where do we post any drawings on your site (if at all) and how would you prefer us to do it (stupid question???…) Thanks Shane.

  15. Chris
    January 6th, 2013 at 10:48 | #15

    Thank you Sir. I learned a lot from you :)

  16. Chris
    January 6th, 2013 at 10:50 | #16

    Hello Shane, the best way to share your work is by email or the facebook page.

  17. JP Austria
    January 19th, 2013 at 14:33 | #17

    Hey Chris, thanks for this, I can’t wait to start using all of this! I just had one question: how long does it usually take for the subscription email to send for FreshTips? I checked my junk folder and it’s nowhere to be found :/ But anyways, thanks again!

  18. Chris
    January 20th, 2013 at 13:31 | #18

    Hey JP, it should come within 5 minutes. Did you check your spam folder? If not, send me a PM.

  19. J
    March 7th, 2013 at 06:40 | #19

    For anatomical studies, flat lighting (in picture 3 for example) is better imo. Since you are not really studying how light and shadow falls on the body, ect, but the actual structure of the body so you need to see the whole thing without obscuring shadows. So those references are not necessarily “bad” figure references.

  20. runnerguy
    March 14th, 2013 at 11:45 | #20

    PoseSpace.com doesn’t seem to be working. I tried making an account and never received a confirmation email. I checked my spam folder too. I contacted them to see what’s up with that.

  21. Chris
    March 14th, 2013 at 13:31 | #21

    Sorry to hear that. They responded to my emails right away. Their service is their responsibility. I’m not affiliated with their company in any way.

  22. K
    March 20th, 2013 at 05:37 | #22

    Actually, figures in flat ambient light are great for very quick gesture drawing.

    Also, 3D models have many flaws, BUT sometimes you just can’t find the right pose in net – like this one :

  23. Anonymous
    April 6th, 2013 at 16:45 | #23

    The Masters paid no attention to the light source available but rather created a light source in their minds that would best solve the pose. An artist will learn much more from this approach than trying to find a perfectly lit piece of photo reference. Ultimately the artist should be able to create the lighting.

  24. June 23rd, 2013 at 16:56 | #24

    Thank you so very much. I was looking for recommendations for a good light for use in a live studio situation that I am facilitating. I came across your site and am thrilled. You have so generously shared such valuable information, I am looking forward to really digging in and learning from you. Thank you so much. I bought the daylight (brand name) stand and two lights. any thoughts on that set up? I am a painter and thought I could use it to light my canvas and pallette when I am not using it to light a model. I bought it from Dick Blick who gave me the best price when I went comparative shopping.

  25. June 26th, 2013 at 01:38 | #25

    You have created a great resource, Chris.!Thanks for sharing your hard work. Cheers, Bill

  26. rob
    June 29th, 2013 at 10:27 | #26

    I have been using all kinds of reference but had no idea that reference with shadow does not mean it is good reference i.e. reflected light or multiple light sources. This is a real eye opener and an invaluable source of key info. Thank you Chris.

  27. Syz
    June 29th, 2013 at 13:48 | #27

    Whats wrong with using 3D models? Seems very snobbish to just dismiss them like that. Sure, if you NEED a reference with lighting and an epidermis, 3D models aren’t going to be your best bet, but if you just need to see what the human body shape would look like from a certain angle they do the job admirably.

  28. Chris
    June 30th, 2013 at 10:31 | #28

    How is that snobbish?

  29. Chris
    June 30th, 2013 at 10:31 | #29

    You’re welcome Rob. Yes it’s not often talked about. That’s why getting good information is important.

  30. Chris
    June 30th, 2013 at 10:32 | #30

    Thanks Bill! I appreciate the support.

  31. Chris
    June 30th, 2013 at 10:34 | #31

    Hi Patty, daylight lights are great for painters. As long as the light has enough power to produce good shadow patterns it should be fine for lighting models as well.

  32. Josh
    December 17th, 2013 at 10:25 | #32

    I signed up for the newsletter to get access to the Private Reference Library, but can’t seem to find any way of directing to it?

  33. Josh
    December 17th, 2013 at 10:27 | #33

    @Josh
    Woops spoke too soon, the 2nd email arrived a bit slow. Feel free to remove these posts.

  34. Jimmie
    February 14th, 2014 at 17:41 | #34

    I signed up for the news letter to get access to your private RL, but I am not getting a reply email directing to it

  35. Chris
    February 24th, 2014 at 18:50 | #35

    check the spam folder

  36. Danny2000
    February 25th, 2014 at 16:41 | #36

    Thank you so much for this!

  37. Danny2000
    February 25th, 2014 at 16:47 | #37

    Where is the blue button to join by the way?

  38. Chris
    March 2nd, 2014 at 22:37 | #38

    “click here” button is a blue jpg

  39. Chris
    March 2nd, 2014 at 22:38 | #39

    You’re welcome! What did you learn Danny? Also please share this article if you think it was helpful.

  40. alex
    March 3rd, 2014 at 19:21 | #40

    scott-eaton.com is a really good one

  41. Miracular
    March 13th, 2014 at 08:16 | #41

    Thank you for this excellent reference on reference. Robert Beverly Hale points out that practiced artists tend not to use existing light and shadow but to invent their own schemes. In that regard, flat lighting may serve to circumvent both the imposition of another artist’s interpretation of light and shadow and random issues with the existing environment. (I cannot help but remember his recounting, in Drawing Lessons from the Great Masters, p. 62, that “I once had a student who carefully copied, as he drew the model’s chest, the cast shadow of a cat asleep on the skylight.” And in his Master Class in Figure Drawing book, p. 42, he says, “The highlights of the body have to be created. . . . You must first decide on the light source. . . . If you are in a large classroom, ignore the busy effects of the 40 or more lights shining on the model. Instead, light the model from your mind and eliminate all other light sources.”)

  42. Chris
    March 25th, 2014 at 17:35 | #42

    You’re welcome. Thanks for the reference

  43. April 2nd, 2014 at 12:20 | #43

    When drawing from life with a model what type of light do you suggest buying? Will a basic photo light set up work? Some thing like this..

    http://www.thelashop.com/33-umbrella-photo-lighting-continuous-4-lights-kit-backdrop.html?gclid=CPyEn8vCwr0CFY17fgodH38Akg

    Or is there something better, that you can suggest.

  44. Chris
    April 6th, 2014 at 21:16 | #44

    Those are photography lights. I like spot lights. The ones with reflectors work well and are inexpensive.

  45. Kate
    May 23rd, 2014 at 21:44 | #45

    Do you have any recommendations for pose books with models in bike shorts or bathing suits? I teach kids classical drawing and would love to have a tool to help them learn about drawing the figure.

  46. Chris
    June 11th, 2014 at 12:20 | #46

    Hi Kate, good question! I have seen books with underwear but the lighting is not that good. Have you seen the other ‘Posefile’ books? They have lots of clothed model books.

  1. January 3rd, 2013 at 11:19 | #1
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