Figure Quick Sketch Tutorial: How to Construct the Limbs
Now that we know how to lay-in the torso, well at least from the front view. Let’s construct the limbs to give our figure some arms and legs.
The approach from the torso study tutorial is sometimes called a “construction” approach. It’s a methodical way to observe and de-construct the figure. Besides construction, there are other considerations when laying in the figure. For example, gesture and rhythms are what animate our figure drawing and give it life.
For this tutorial, I will use a a combination of construction and rhythms. It all depends on what the pose is giving me. Some poses the structure is prominent (or can be made prominent), in some poses the gesture (and thus the rhythms) are very interesting. Bottom line, good observation leads to good judgment and good judgment leads to good marks and so on. So always observe, observe, observe. Speaking of observation…
Step 1: Observe
The first thing you want to look for is the gesture. The major and minor rhythms, swoops and arcs. All the visible, and sometimes invisible lines that give our figure movement and life. Then, when you’re ready to construct your figure, look for the landmarks.
As a general rule, the legs are of greater significance then arms which is why we follow the torso with the legs. The key landmarks are: the connection to the crotch, connection to the hips, point of knee, connection of thigh (hamstring) to calf, , connection of lower leg to foot, point of ankle bone, heel and big toe. Yes, big toe (Fig. 1). That sounds like a lot, but with practice, good observation will become second nature.
Step 2: Gesture
Having identified our landmarks, we describe the gesture. The major rhythms may not always follow the form, but when possible, use the landmarks to guide your gesture marks. Start with the thighs move down to the the calf.
Step 3: Cross sections
Cross sections really help to define form. They also describe perspective and foreshortening. Before randomly drawing cross sections, observe the model’s anatomy. For example, cross sections can be added at the peak of the thigh, the end of the adductor (thigh) muscle, the top and bottom of the knee, the ankle and depression of the calf.
Add cross sections as needed to describe form and anatomy. It’s not necessary to cross the entire figure. Our objective of the lay-in is to give us enough information to add light and shade.
Work your way down to the feet and then move on to the arms. Approach the arms the same way. Becomes of the arms range of motion, they will tend to lend themselves more to a rhythmic approach. Of course it all depends on the pose.
Let’s go through a few more examples.
That pretty much sums up basic limb construction. First, observe for landmarks. Next, draw the gesture and rhythms. Then, add cross sections as needed to describe anatomy and form. In their most basic and geometric form, the limbs can be thought of as jointed tubes. Using a dynamic gesture line as a guide will give our “tubes” movement and life.
Keep in mind, the lay-in is simply the framework for our drawing. It’s not necessary to replicate the figure with our lay-in lines. The key is to give yourself enough information to add light and shade. Let the light, shade (values) and edges do the work of describing form and anatomy (Fig. 8).
More information on shading, can be found in the other figure quick sketch tutorials and videos.
*** Quick Sketch CHALLENGE! ***
This demo is meant to be a guide and a starting point. It’s almost impossible to learn and appreciate all the nuances of figure drawing from a static tutorial. The best way to apply the techniques is to watch it first hand or go to a live figure drawing session and draw from the model. So here is the challenge:
Draw a full page of quick sketch figures.
The first person to reply with a full page of quick sketch figures will win an original charcoal quick sketch drawing.
When I say page, I mean 18″x24″ newsprint pad, but that size isn’t necessary. It’s just an ideal size pad to practice. Above is a page of 5 minute poses I did during an open figure drawing workshop.
The minimum number of drawings to qualify are:
- 8 full figures at 3-5 min. pose length or
- 20 full figures at 1-3 min. pose length.
Basically whatever you can draw during 2 live sessions. Generally, a session is about 20-25 minutes.
Pretty simple. Just some incentive to get out there and draw from the model. First person to respond with a jpg snapshot of their quicksketch sheet wins. Good luck and I look forward to your entries.